The Pandas library is one of the most preferred tools for data scientists to do data manipulation and analysis, next to matplotlib for data visualization and NumPy, the fundamental library for scientific computing in Python on which Pandas was built.

The fast, flexible, and expressive Pandas data structures are designed to make real-world data analysis significantly easier, but this might not be immediately the case for those who are just getting started with it. Exactly because there is so much functionality built into this package that the options are overwhelming.


A one-dimensional labeled array capable of holding any data type

>>> s = pd.Series([3, -5, 7, 4], index=['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'])


A two-dimensional labeled data structure with columns of potentially different types

>>> data = {'Country': ['Belgium', 'India', 'Brazil'], 'Capital': ['Brussels', 'New Delhi', 'Brasilia'], 'Population': [11190846, 1303171035, 207847528]} >>> df = pd.DataFrame(data,columns=['Country', 'Capital', 'Population'])
Country Capital Population  
1 Belgium Brussels 11190846
2 India New Delhi 1303171035
3 Brazil Brasilia 207847528

Please note that the first column 1,2,3 is the index and Country,Capital,Population are the Columns.

Asking For Help

>>> help(pd.Series.loc)


Read and Write to CSV

>>> pd.read_csv('file.csv', header=None, nrows=5) >>> pd.to_csv('myDataFrame.csv')

Read multiple sheets from the same file

>>> xlsx = pd.ExcelFile('file.xls') >>> df = pd.read_excel(xlsx, 'Sheet1')

Read and Write to Excel

>>> pd.read_excel('file.xlsx') >>> pd.to_excel('dir/myDataFrame.xlsx', sheet_name='Sheet1')

Read and Write to SQL Query or Database Table

(read_sql()is a convenience wrapper around read_sql_table() and read_sql_query())

>>> from sqlalchemy import create_engine >>> engine = create_engine('sqlite:///:memory:') >>> pd.read_sql(SELECT * FROM my_table;, engine) >>> pd.read_sql_table('my_table', engine) >>> pd.read_sql_query(SELECT * FROM my_table;', engine)

>>> pd.to_sql('myDf', engine)



Get one element

>>> s['b'] -5

Get subset of a DataFrame

>>> df[1:] Country Capital Population 1 India New Delhi 1303171035 2 Brazil Brasilia 207847528

Selecting’, Boolean Indexing and Setting

By Position

Select single value by row and and column

>>> df.iloc([0], [0]) 'Belgium' >>> df.iat([0], [0]) 'Belgium'

By Label

Select single value by row and column labels

>>> df.loc([0], ['Country']) 'Belgium' >>>[0], ['Country']) 'Belgium'

By Label/Position

Select single row of subset of rows

>>> df.ix[2] Country Brazil Capital Brasilia Population 207847528

Select a single column of subset of columns

>>> df.ix[:, 'Capital'] 0 Brussels 1 New Delhi 2 Brasilia

Select rows and columns

>>> df.ix[1, 'Capital'] 'New Delhi'

Boolean Indexing

Series s where value is not >1

>>> s[~(s > 1)]

s where value is <-1 or >2

>>> s[(s < -1) | (s > 2)]

Use filter to adjust DataFrame

>>> df[df['Population']>1200000000]


Set index a of Series s to 6

>>> s['a'] = 6


Drop values from rows (axis=0)

>>> s.drop(['a', 'c'])

Drop values from columns(axis=1)

>>> df.drop('Country', axis=1)

Sort and Rank

Sort by labels along an axis

>>> df.sort_index()

Sort by the values along an axis

>>> df.sort_values(by='Country')

Assign ranks to entries

>>> df.rank()

Retrieving Series/DataFrame Information

Basic Information

(rows, columns)

>>> df.shape

Describe index

>>> df.index

Describe DataFrame columns

>>> df.columns

Info on DataFrame


Number of non-NA values

>>> df.count()


Sum of values

>>> df.sum()

Cumulative sum of values

>>> df.cumsum()

Minimum/maximum values

>>> df.min()/df.max()

Minimum/Maximum index value

>>> df.idxmin()/df.idxmax()

Summary statistics

>>> df.describe()

Mean of values

>>> df.mean()

Median of values

>>> df.median()

Applying Functions

>>> f = lambda x: x*2

Apply function

>>> df.apply(f)

Apply function element-wise

>>> df.applymap(f)

Internal Data Alignment

NA values are introduced in the indices that don’t overlap:

>>> s3 = pd.Series([7, -2, 3], index=['a', 'c', 'd']) >>> s + s3 a 10.0 b NaN c 5.0 d 7.0

Arithmetic Operations with Fill Methods

You can also do the internal data alignment yourself with the help of the fill methods:

>>> s.add(s3, fill_value=0) a 10.0 b -5.0 c 5.0 d 7.0 >>> s.sub(s3, fill_value=2) >>> s.div(s3, fill_value=4) >>> s.mul(s3, fill_value=3)