AngularJS is a JavaScript framework. It can be added to an HTML page with a <script> tag.

<script src=""></script>

It is recommended that you load the AngularJS library either in the <head> or at the start of the <body>, so that the angular.module function can be loaded.. AngularJS modules define AngularJS applications. AngularJS controllers control AngularJS applications.

This reference is the summary of W3School’s Angular tutorial.


AngularJS extends HTML with ng-directives. AngularJS directives are HTML attributes with an ng prefix.

AngularJS has a set of built-in directives which you can use to add functionality to your application.

  • The ng-app directive defines an AngularJS application, and defines the “owner” of the AngularJS application in terms of HTML element. It will auto-bootstrap the application when a webpage is loaded.
  • The ng-controller directive defines the controller.
  • The ng-model directive binds the value of HTML controls (input, select, textarea) to application data.
  • The ng-repeat directive repeats an HTML element: ng-repeat="x in names" iterates over an array names and clones HTML elements once for each item in a collection.

The ng-bind directive binds application data to the HTML view. The ng-init directive initializes AngularJS application variables.

You can use data-ng-, instead of ng-, if you want to make your page HTML valid. Using ng-init is not very common.

Create New Directives

In addition to all the built-in AngularJS directives, you can create your own directives. New directives are created by using the app.directive function. To invoke the new directive, make an HTML element with the same tag name as the new directive. When naming a directive, you must use a camel case name, w3TestDirective, but when invoking it, you must use - separated name, w3-test-directive:

<body ng-app="myApp">


var app = angular.module("myApp", []);
app.directive("w3TestDirective", function() {
    return {
        template : "<h1>Made by a directive!</h1>"


You can invoke a directive by using:

  • Element name: <w3-test-directive></w3-test-directive>
  • Attribute: <div w3-test-directive></div>
  • Class: <div class="w3-test-directive"></div>
  • Comment: <!-- directive: w3-test-directive -->

You can restrict your directives to only be invoked by some of the methods. The legal restrict values are:

  • E for Element name
  • A for Attribute
  • C for Class
  • M for Comment

By default the value is EA, meaning that both Element names and attribute names can invoke the directive.


The ng-repeat directive is perfect for displaying lists or tables.

 <div ng-app="myApp" ng-controller="customersCtrl">

  <tr ng-repeat="x in names">
    <td>{{ $index + 1 }}</td>
    <td>{{ x.Name }}</td>
    <td>{{ x.Country }}</td>


var app = angular.module('myApp', []);
app.controller('customersCtrl', function($scope, $http) {
    .then(function (response) {$scope.names =;});

$index is the table index.


With the ng-model directive you can bind the value of an input field to a variable created in AngularJS. The binding goes both ways. If the user changes the value inside the input field, the AngularJS property will also change its value.

One usecase of ng-model directive is to provide type validation for application data (number, e-mail, required):

<form ng-app="" name="myForm">
    <input type="email" name="myAddress" ng-model="text">
    <span ng-show="myForm.myAddress.$">Not a valid e-mail address</span>

The ng-model directive can provide status for application data (invalid, dirty, touched, error).

The ng-model directive provides CSS classes for HTML elements, depending on their status:

 <style> {
    background-color: lightblue;

<form ng-app="" name="myForm">
    Enter your name:
    <input name="myName" ng-model="myText" required>

The ng-model directive adds/removes the following classes, according to the status of the form field:

  • ng-empty
  • ng-not-empty
  • ng-touched
  • ng-untouched
  • ng-valid
  • ng-invalid
  • ng-dirty
  • ng-pending
  • ng-pristine

Data Binding

The HTML container where the AngularJS application is displayed, is called the view. Data binding in AngularJS is the synchronization between the model and the view. The view has access to the model, and there are several ways of displaying model data in the view.

  • The ng-bind directive, which will bind the innerHTML of the element to the specified model property: <p ng-bind="firstname"></p>
  • double braces {{ }}
  • ng-model directive: <input ng-model="firstname">

When data in the model changes, the view reflects the change, and when data in the view changes, the model is updated as well. This happens immediately and automatically, which makes sure that the model and the view is updated at all times.

AngularJS data can be defined in the controllers as well.

var app = angular.module('myApp', []);
app.controller('myCtrl', function($scope) {
    $scope.firstname = "John";
    $scope.lastname = "Doe";


If you want to create a dropdown list, based on an object or an array in AngularJS, you should use the ng-options directive. Though you can use ng-repeat with <select>, ng-options returns the select object instead of only string:

<select ng-model="selectedCar" ng-options="x.model for x in cars">

<h1>You selected: {{selectedCar.model}}</h1>
<p>Its color is: {{selectedCar.color}}</p>

If the data source is an object with key-value pairs, use ng-options="k for (k, v) in cars". k is the key and v is the value. The selected value will always be the value in the key-value pair.

Directive for DOM Operations

The ng-disabled directive binds AngularJS application data to the disabled attribute of HTML elements.

The ng-show directive shows or hides an HTML element based on the value of ng-show. The ng-hide directive hides or shows an HTML element.


AngularJS expressions are written inside double braces: ``, or inside a directive: ng-bind="expression". AngularJS will “output” data exactly where the expression is written. AngularJS expressions are much like JavaScript expressions: They can contain literals, operators, and variables.


<div ng-app="" ng-init="firstName='John';lastName='Doe'">
<p>The name is {{ firstName + " " + lastName }}</p>
<div ng-app="" ng-init="firstName='John';lastName='Doe'">
<p>The name is <span ng-bind="firstName + ' ' + lastName"></span></p>

AngularJS expressions are only evaludated when the ng-app directive presents.

Numbers, strings, objects, arrays in AngularJS is like in JavaScript. AngularJS expressions do not support conditionals, loops, and exceptions, while JavaScript expressions do. AngularJS expressions support filters, while JavaScript expressions do not.


An AngularJS module defines an application. The module is a container for the different parts of an application. The module is a container for the application controllers. Controllers always belong to a module.

A module is created by using the AngularJS function angular.module. A controler can be added to a module, and is referred in HTML with the ng-controller directive.

<div ng-app="myApp" ng-controller="myCtrl">{{ firstName + " " + lastName }}</div>


var app = angular.module("myApp", []);

app.controller("myCtrl", function($scope) {
* $scope.firstName = "John";
* $scope.lastName = "Doe";


It is common in AngularJS applications to put the module and the controllers in JavaScript files. They are linked to the HTML files via <script> tag.

The reason that AngularJS ties everything to the module is to NOT have global functions as they can easily be overriden or destroyed by other scripts.


AngularJS controllers control the data of AngularJS applications. They are regular JavaScript Objects. The ng-controller directive defines the application controller.


<div ng-app="myApp" ng-controller="myCtrl">

First Name: <input type="text" ng-model="firstName"><br>
Last Name: <input type="text" ng-model="lastName"><br>
Full Name: {{firstName + " " + lastName}}


var app = angular.module('myApp', []);
app.controller('myCtrl', function($scope) {
* $scope.firstName = "John";
* $scope.lastName = "Doe";


  • The AngularJS application is defined by ng-app="myApp". The application runs inside the <div>.
  • The ng-controller="myCtrl" attribute is an AngularJS directive. It defines a controller.
  • The myCtrl function is a JavaScript function.
  • AngularJS will invoke the controller with a $scope object. $scope is the application object (the owner of application variables and functions).
  • The controller creates two properties (variables) in the scope (firstName and lastName).
  • The ng-model directives bind the input fields to the controller properties (firstName and lastName).

The controller can define methods on the $scope object via variables as functions:

$scope.fullName = function() {
* return $scope.firstName + " " + $scope.lastName;


The scope is the binding part between the HTML (view) and the JavaScript (controller). The scope is an object with the available properties and methods. The scope is available for both the view and the controller.

When adding properties to the $scope object in the controller, the view (HTML) gets access to these properties. In the view, you do not use the prefix $scope, you just refer to a propertyname.

If we consider an AngularJS application to consist of:

  • View, which is the HTML.
  • Model, which is the data available for the current view.
  • Controller, which is the JavaScript function that makes/changes/removes/controls the data.

Then the scope is the Model.

It is important to know which scope you are dealing with, at any time. But for larger applications there can be sections in the HTML DOM which can only access certain scopes. For example, when dealing with the ng-repeat directive, each repetition has access to the current repetition object.

All applications have a $rootScope which is the scope created on the HTML element that contains the ng-app directive. The $rootScope is available in the entire application. If a variable has the same name in both the current scope and in the rootScope, the application use the one in the current scope.


Filters can be added in AngularJS to format data.

  • currency Format a number to a currency format.
  • date Format a date to a specified format.
  • filter Select a subset of items from an array. It only works on arrays and returns an array.
  • json Format an object to a JSON string.
  • limitTo Limits an array/string, into a specified number of elements/characters.
  • lowercase Format a string to lower case.
  • number Format a number to a string.
  • orderBy Orders an array by an expression.
  • uppercase Format a string to upper case.

Filters can be added to expressions by using the pipe character |, followed by a filter.

<div ng-app="myApp" ng-controller="personCtrl">
<p>The name is {{ lastName | uppercase }}</p>

Similarly, filters can be added to directives, such as ng-repeat:

<div ng-app="myApp" ng-controller="namesCtrl">

  <li ng-repeat="x in names | orderBy:'country'">
    {{ + ', ' + }}


You can make your own filters by registering a new filter factory function with your module using app.filter:

<ul ng-app="myApp" ng-controller="namesCtrl">
    <li ng-repeat="x in names">
        {{x | myFormat}}

var app = angular.module('myApp', []);
app.filter('myFormat', function() {
    return function(x) {
        var i, c, txt = "";
        for (i = 0; i < x.length; i++) {
            c = x[i];
            if (i % 2 == 0) {
                c = c.toUpperCase();
            txt += c;
        return txt;
app.controller('namesCtrl', function($scope) {
    $scope.names = ['Jani', 'Carl', 'Margareth', 'Hege', 'Joe', 'Gustav', 'Birgit', 'Mary', 'Kai'];

This example format every other characters to uppercase.


In AngularJS, a service is a function, or object, that is available for, and limited to, your AngularJS application. AngularJS has about 30 built-in services.

An example is the $location service. The $location service has methods which return information about the location of the current web page:

var app = angular.module('myApp', []);
app.controller('customersCtrl', function($scope, $location) {
    $scope.myUrl = $location.absUrl();

Note that the $location service is passed in to the controller as an argument. In order to use the service in the controller, it must be defined as a dependency.

The $http Service

The $http service is one of the most common used services in AngularJS applications. The service makes a request to the server, and lets your application handle the response:

var app = angular.module('myApp', []);
app.controller('myCtrl', function($scope, $http) {
    $http.get("welcome.htm").then(function (response) {
        $scope.myWelcome =;

The example above uses the .get method of the $http service.

The .get method is a shortcut method of the $http service. There are several shortcut methods:

  • .delete()
  • .get()
  • .head()
  • .jsonp()
  • .patch()
  • .post()
  • .put()

The complete way for these shortcut methods are:

var app = angular.module('myApp', []);
app.controller('myCtrl', function($scope, $http) {
        method : "GET",
        url : "welcome.htm"
    }).then(function mySucces(response) {
        $scope.myWelcome =;
    }, function myError(response) {
        $scope.myWelcome = response.statusText;

The response from the server is an object with these properties:

  • .config the object used to generate the request.
  • .data a string, or an object, carrying the response from the server. It is expected to be in JSON format.
  • .headers a function to use to get header information.
  • .status a number defining the HTTP status.
  • .statusText a string defining the HTTP status.

To handle errors, add one more function to .then function.

The $timeout Service

The $timeout service is AngularJS’ version of the window.setTimeout function.

var app = angular.module('myApp', []);
app.controller('myCtrl', function($scope, $timeout) {
    $scope.myHeader = "Hello World!";
    $timeout(function () {
        $scope.myHeader = "How are you today?";
    }, 2000);

The $interval Service

The $interval service is AngularJS’ version of the window.setInterval function. To display time every second:

var app = angular.module('myApp', []);
app.controller('myCtrl', function($scope, $interval) {
    $scope.theTime = new Date().toLocaleTimeString();
    $interval(function () {
        $scope.theTime = new Date().toLocaleTimeString();
    }, 1000);

Create Your Own Service

  1. Use app.service to define the service and connect it to the application;
  2. Declare the service as a depeneency in any controller, directive, filter, or even inside other services.
app.service('hexafy', function() {
    this.myFunc = function (x) {
        return x.toString(16);
app.controller('myCtrl', function($scope, hexafy) {
    $scope.hex = hexafy.myFunc(255);


The ngRoute module helps your application to become a Single Page Application (allows navigation to different pages without page reloading).

To make your applications ready for routing, you must:

  1. include the AngularJS Route module:
    <script src=""></script>
  2. add the ngRoute as a dependency in the application module:
    var app = angular.module("myApp", ["ngRoute"]);

Now your application has access to the route module, which provides the $routeProvider. Use the $routeProvider.when to configure different routes in your application, or $routeProvider.otherwise to define fallback page:

var app = angular.module("myApp", ["ngRoute"]);
app.config(function($routeProvider) {
    .when("/", {
        templateUrl : "main.htm"
    .when("/london", {
        templateUrl : "london.htm",
        controller : "londonCtrl"
    .when("/paris", {
        templateUrl : "paris.htm",
        controller : "parisCtrl"
        template : "<h1>None</h1><p>Nothing has been selected</p>"
app.controller("londonCtrl", function ($scope) {
    $scope.msg = "I love London";
app.controller("parisCtrl", function ($scope) {
    $scope.msg = "I love Paris";

With the $routeProvider you can also define a controller for each “view”. In the $routeProvider.when method, use templateUrl property to define the file, or template to write HTML directly.

Your application needs a container to put the content provided by the routing. This container is the ng-view directive. Any way to define the ng-view directive can be used. Applications can only have one ng-view directive, and this will be the placeholder for all views provided by the route.